Teaching US History
Last summer, I redid how I would teach my US History class this school year. For all but one year of my teaching career, I taught US History chronologically. I did themes one year, but I did not like it. I probably did not pick the right themes. This year, I had one goal in mind…to spend more time teaching lessons about modern US History. The only way for me to do that was to alter what I teach and when. So, over a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, a banana, and a glass of milk, I sat down at my computer, opened up an Excel spreadsheet, and began to draft four or five different versions of how the class might look. I decided to give one a try this year and I can safely say the thematic approach has worked out well. In previous years, I rarely had time to teach about the Clinton era. Usually the lessons were about his presidency (in 1 lesson), Columbine, and technology. There was just not enough time to go into any detail. This year, the thematic approach created space for me to do more on less.
In planning out a unit that included the Clinton era, I set aside 4 weeks/20 days for the unit with 10 days/lessons dedicated to the Clinton era. Teaching Clinton is a challenging task. One reason is the era is fraught with change that has not played out yet. One time a history fair judge told me to “…wait 20 years to write or teach about history properly. That way you can see the effect of the event.” He was right…for the most part. It has been almost 20 years. And the events did reshape the country. Here’s the plan:
The Introductory Lesson – This lesson looks at the good, the bad, and the ugly of Clinton’s first term. After some brief background information on Clinton, students are given 13 terms (including his failed health care reform) that they must read about and then students determine whether to place the event in the good, bad, or ugly column. After students complete that task, the events are discussed and the Contract with America is examined more and the effect that the midterm elections had on how Clinton governed. Then the big discussion comes on the 1996 election.
Finding a Place in the World – This lesson takes two days. In keeping with the new role of the US in the world, three events in foreign affairs are discussed and examined. Bosnia, Haiti, and Somalia are all given a little sample of what Clinton wants to do in each instance.
Students are then told to only pick one event to do. Then once the students have discussed their decisions, the class then discusses the impact of doing all three. Students individually investigate Bosnia and Haiti while the class as a whole looks at Somalia and Operation Restore Hope in detail including the use of an educational film on the real Black Hawk Down. The students finally examine the role of the US in the post Cold-War world and whether or not to be the policeman of the world.
The Scandal – Delicate planning is needed for two lessons on the Lewinsky Scandal. This one is going to be fun for the students to learn about while scary for me to teach. Day one involves setting up the roles for the students and presenting the evidence. This includes some documents, a PowerPoint on Who’s Who, some constitutional background, and an educational film from National Geographic’s series “The Final Report” that I downloaded from iTunes. (Here’s a preview)
The scary part as a teacher comes in discussing some of the salacious details which is why I have decided to only show certain portions of the educational film. The high point for the students is they get to act as the US Senate and sit in judgment of the evidence on day two of the lesson. Cartoons are brought in for openers, but the students actively participating clearly is the key to them feeling as if they are part of history. I debated on whether to have them sift through the evidence on both sides and place evidence in certain categories, but I tend to like the mock trial better.
Grunge – Oh, how I loved the early 1990s for music! Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, and Mother Love Bone are still in daily rotation on my iPod for exercise. In this fantastic trip down memory lane, students examine the reasons for the Seattle music scene and how it reflected youth culture and was actually very anti-music industry in its attitudes. Students watch a short film, read a PowerPoint, read some lyrics, and make a paper grunge doll (those are hysterical) along with more information in a product. I will probably take two days to do this right. I will also include some choice bits from PJ 20 and an old VH1 documentary on grunge.
Technology and Culture – This is a fun day as students use the Internet to find bits and pieces of 90s culture and create a product of how technology was then and how it has evolved into what the students use today. This is one of the few days which their textbook is the main source of information. I also provide a link to here.
Columbine – This one day lesson is the one that I find most disturbing. It is a web search that I hope does not glorify what those two young men did that day. Rather the search focuses on the reasons for their actions and what lessons can be learned and applied today.
Defining a Legacy – Similar to the Place in the World Lesson, this lesson examines Clinton’s and the US’s role in foreign affairs in his second term. I am not done planning it yet. I have the introduction to the lesson done and I have 2 scenarios/situations mapped out in my head (one involving Bin Laden), I just haven’t gotten to tying them all together with some activity yet. I do know Clinton’s legacy will be examined using parts of this PBS article from their wonderful Clinton series. I do believe it is important to teach the events in foreign affairs from his second term but I think the culminating activity of determining a legacy is even more important and how Kosovo, Desert Fox, terrorism, and Bin Laden fit within that legacy, if at all.
In the end, teaching Clinton is like walking a tightrope. You have to be balanced as you go across the rope. If you get too much to one side, you begin to fall. I think that is the key. Present the evidence, from multiple-viewpoints, and let the students decide for themselves. Whether it is the scandal, foreign affairs, culture, economics, trust the students to use the evidence to learn and craft responses to history. I think, without a doubt, there are multiple lessons to be learned. Whether the event was good, bad, or ugly, there is an inherent moral in each lesson that can be learned from this polarizing President. I think the best part might come when the unit is complete and Clinton’s actions are compared and contrasted to both George W. Bush and Barack Obama. Then, and only then, I think, one can begin to see the impact that Clinton had for the good, the bad, and the ugly as President.
For the last 20 years, I have never been a big fan of the textbook. They serve a small purpose to a very small point. For me, the small point of the textbook is to have it be the basis for an argument. As a teacher of US History, I try to have my students make arguments and analysis based on facts. An opinion usually sneaks in here or there, but that is fine once in a while. The past week has found me ending a unit in my history classes. The foundation for the unit is the shift from a moderate populace to a more conservative one in the 1980s. At the center of this shift is none other than Ronald Reagan.
I have blogged about Reagan before. He is an enigma, a wildly popular president and for the life of I have a hard time understanding why sometimes as I look at the record. However, as a teacher, I have to make my own students make their own choices.
Whether it was SDI, the conservative movement, cartoons, supply side economics, or one of many other events, I have been slowly accumulating lessons about the Gipper. 20 years ago, he took up one day. Now, he takes up six. The reason for the change has been the effect Reagan still has on the Republican party and on middle America. I grew in Reagan country and still live here as an adult. I have not always agreed with his policies and I have not agreed with his legacy. For the students, the enigma of how Reagan became so influential is perplexing.
The Unit Begins
1. The Malaise
The Fallout of Watergate and Vietnam are examined in this introductory lesson. Topics include the Halloween Massacre, the continuing energy crisis, the election of 1976, the Iranian Hostage Crisis, and the continuing malaise during the Carter presidency.
2. Culture of the 1970s
Students learn about the fabulous and the dangerous late 1970s culture through my eyes. I talk about my days of nerd heaven between Star Wars and beginning to play Dungeons and Dragons. I also take about the scourge of Disco and the coming of Punk. New technologies are also discussed like the Microwave and cable TV.
3. Reagan and his first term
In the third lesson, I finally get to Reagan. We discuss his background of growing up in nearby Tampico and Dixon and his early career. We reminisce about HUAC and discuss his time as Governor of California. Finally, we get to the election of 1980. After a short PPT presentation, the students read about his first term and discuss things that went well and things that didn’t. Students discuss the merits of his presidency and do a cartoon worksheet which.
4. The Great Communicator
Five speeches are examined as students make a product about Reagan’s speaking ability. A Time for Choosing, the Challenger Speech, Tear Down this Wall, Evil Empire Speech, and the Iran Contra Speech. The goal is to break down the elements of what made Reagan and effective speaker. Here are two of the speeches…
Students review Reagan’s first term. Then a discussion is held about why people are certain denominations of money. Bills are discussed and not coins. Then in small groups, they read a balanced account of economic indicators about Reaganomics. Students make a t-chart and place the items in either good or bad.
With the advice from former president Richard Nixon, Reagan concentrated on economic issues his first six months in office. Reaganomics was the name given to the supply-side economic theory which Reagan based his economic plans. It operated on the belief that the economy was struggling in large part because of excessive taxation. With more money going to taxes, individuals and corporations were unable to invest capital to stimulate growth. The plan called for massive tax cuts in order to stimulate investments. The economic growth would then `trickle down` to the workers. Supply side economics also called for budget cuts to counteract the loss of revenue from the tax cuts. Reagan followed this model in creating his budget plan in 1981. Reagan put together legislation that cut government expenditures by $40 billion and created a three-year tax cut plan for individual and corporate income taxes. The tax cut was the largest in history and was expected to jump-start the economy. However, after the bills passed in the summer of 1981, the country fell into the worst recession since the Great Depression.
Interest rates fell six points.
Eight million new jobs were created as unemployment fell.
An eight percent growth in private wealth.
According to the Statistical Abstract of the United States for 1996, the number of people (white, black, and Hispanic) below the poverty level increased in almost every year between 1981 (31.8 million) and 1992 (39.3 million).
We were $994 billion in debt in fiscal 1981, when Carter left off, and $2,867 billion when Reagan leaves office in fiscal 1989. The rough number is 2.85 times as much in 1989 as in 1981.
The primary reason the deficit grew during the Reagan years was the Cold War military buildup.
Tax cuts did revenues increased in fact in almost a straight progression from pre-Reagan years.
The trade deficit quadrupled.
The 1986 Tax Reform Act is widely considered to be the best piece of American tax legislation since the adoption of the income tax. It is the opposite of Reaganomics. Over its first five years, it closed more than $500 billion in loopholes and tax shelters. As a result:
•Major U.S. corporations that previously had paid little or nothing in income taxes due to loopholes were put back on the tax rolls, and corporate taxes were increased overall by a net of more $100 billion over five years.
•A huge wasteful tax-shelter industry for high-income individuals was shut down.
• Tax rates on capital gains income were raised to the same level as on other income.
• Millions of moderate-income working families got tax relief through a major expansion of the earned-income tax credit.
• Taxes on most families (on average, all but the best-off tenth) were reduced. (The table shows the tax changes by income group.)
• The income tax was substantially simplified for most filers.
The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from 1981 to 1989 was 3.2 percent per year, compared with 2.8 percent from 1974 to 1981 and 2.1 percent from 1989 to 1995.
During the economic expansion alone, the economy grew by a robust annual rate of 3.8 percent. By the end of the Reagan years, the American economy was almost one-third larger than it was when they began.
When Reagan took office in 1981, the unemployment rate was 7.6 percent. In the recession of 1981-82, that rate peaked at 9.7 percent, but it fell continuously for the next seven years. When Reagan left office, the unemployment rate was 5.5 percent.
Real median family income grew by $4,000 during the Reagan period after experiencing no growth in the pre-Reagan years; it experienced a loss of almost $1,500 in the post-Reagan years.
The savings rate did not rise in the 1980s, as supply side advocates had predicted. In fact, in the 1980s the personal savings rate fell from 8 percent to 6.5 percent. If the median family was better off why did their savings go down?
In 1993 Clinton raised the taxes on the rich, the opposite of Reaganomics, opponents argued that this would stop the growing economy. That did not happen.
Not surprisingly, students understand most of the economic discussion held. As a class we discuss which fact goes on which side. Most of the time it is clear cut, but there are some facts up for debate. Students look at a graph and answer some questions about the chart and conservative thought. Then, using the t-chart, the students determine whether Reagan should be put on the $10 bill replacing Alexander Hamilton.
6. Foreign Affairs
Students review what they already know about Reagan and foreign affairs from his speeches. Then a cartoon is analyzed. Students get a blank map and using text boxes and arrows, they read their textbook and fill out where the hot spots that Reagan had to deal with. Reagan’s dealing with Central America are discussed as well as Iran-Contra, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and the Reagan Doctrine. Students then get a worksheet to analyze the Iran-Contra affair. In the worksheet are what other options did Reagan have and other solutions to the problem.
Students go to the computer lab and read a PPT a student did for National History Day about Reagan and SDI. At the end of the PowerPoint are a series of questions about how SDI influenced foreign affairs in the summits with Gorbachev and the functionality of SDI today.
8. Reagan in Cartoons
Students go to the computer lab and analyze a selection of about 30 cartoons about Reagan. Students pick out ten and explain how the cartoons reflect the presidency of Reagan – both good and bad. Using what they have learned in previous lessons as evidence, the students put it altogether.
While the Reagan Lessons are over, the unit continues for another week and a half as students examine George H.W. Bush, Desert Storm, the Clinton Legacy, Columbine and 1990s culture.
Altogether, the unit lasts about 4 weeks. It is a unit that is always evolving. As more and more information is released and more and more documents are released from the Reagan era, then lessons can be built around investigation and argument. I think that next year, I would like to add some video which discusses the presidency as a whole and add some polling data about his popularity. In addition, I would like to add a scenario or a simulation for the students to investigate Iran-Contra or dealing with the Soviets.
At its core, the lessons are about using the evidence to make arguments for both sides as the students form their own opinions and learn multiple points of view.